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 USA Citizenship and Naturalization Guide - Includes Test Questions 
Naturalization is the way immigrants become Citizens of the USA.
If you were not born a citizen, you become one through naturalization. Citizenship is a lifetime benefit bestowed upon you.

As a US citizen, you get unique rights and privileges which include the right to vote, having a U.S. passport , the U.S. government's protection when abroad and the right to petition for green cards for your children and close relatives. As a U.S. citizen, you cannot be deported or lose your citizenship even if you commit a crime or choose to live elsewhere in the world, unless you misrepresented yourself to get citizenship or were ineligible at the time.


Who is Eligable to become a US Citizen?
A person may become a US citizen
1) by birth
2) through naturalization (applicable for Green Card holders/ Permanent Residents).

To become a US Citizen through Naturalization you must meet the following requirements;

Age - You must be at least 18 years old.

Residency - You must have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence (have a Green card). Individuals who have been lawfully admitted as permanent residents will be asked to produce an I-551, Alien Registration Receipt Card, as proof of their status.


Residence and Physical Presence
You are eligible to file if, immediately preceding the filing of the application, you:
were lawfully admitted for permanent residence;
have resided continuously as a lawful permanent resident (Green Card holder) in the U.S. for at least 5 years prior to filing with no single absence from the United States of more than one year;
have been physically present in the United States for at least 30 months out of the previous five years (absences of more than six months but less than one year will disrupt your continuity of residence unless the you can establish that you did not abandon your residence during this period)
have resided within a state or district for at least three months


Good Moral Character
Generally, you must show that you have been a person of good moral character for the statutory period (typically five years or three years if married to a U.S. citizen or one year for Armed Forces expedite) prior to filing for naturalization. The Service is not limited to the statutory period in determining whether you have established good moral character. You are permanently barred from naturalization if you have ever been convicted of murder. You are also permanently barred from naturalization if you have been convicted of an aggravated felony as defined in section 101(a)(43) of the Act on or after November 29, 1990. You also cannot be found to be a person of good moral character if during the last five years you:
committed and have been convicted of one or more crimes involving moral turpitude
committed and have been convicted of 2 or more offenses for which the total sentence imposed was 5 years or more
committed and have been convicted of any controlled substance law, except for a single offense of simple possession of 30 grams or less of marijuana
been confined to a penal institution during the statutory period, as a result of a conviction, for an aggregate period of 180 days or more
committed and have been convicted of two or more gambling offenses
have earned your principal income from illegal gambling
have been involved in prostitution or commercialized vice
have been involved in smuggling illegal aliens into the United States
have been a habitual drunkard
are practicing or have practiced polygamy
have willfully failed or refused to support dependents
have given false testimony, under oath, in order to receive a benefit under the Immigration and Nationality Act.
You must disclose all relevant facts to the Service, including your entire criminal history, regardless of whether the criminal history disqualifies you under the enumerated provisions.


Attachment to the Constitution
You must show that you are attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States

Language
You must be able to read, write, speak, and understand words in ordinary usage in the English language. Applicants exempt from this requirement are those who on the date of filing:
have been residing in the United States subsequent to a lawful admission for permanent residence for periods totaling 15 years or more and are over 55 years of age;
have been residing in the United States subsequent to a lawful admission for permanent residence for periods totaling 20 years or more and are over 50 years of age; or
have a medically determinable physical or mental impairment, where the impairment affects the applicant's ability to learn English

United States Government and History Knowledge
You must demonstrate a knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the history and of the principles and form of government of the United States. Applicants exempt from this requirement are those who, on the date of filing, have a medically determinable physical or mental impairment, where the impairment affects the applicant's ability to learn U.S. History and Government
Applicants who have been residing in the U.S. subsequent to a lawful admission for permanent residence for at least 20 years and are over the age of 65 will be afforded special condsideration in satisfying this requirement.


Citizenship Quick Guide
1) If you meet the requirements to become a US Citizen, you can use the "Application for Naturalization" (Form N-400) to apply for Citizenship.
2) You should send your completed form to the appropriate USCIS Service Center in your State.
3) The time it takes to be naturalized varies from one USCIS hearing office to another. The USCIS is currently modernizing and improving the naturalization process and projects it will take between 6 and 9 months to become naturalized.
4) After the USCIS has received your application, they will notify you of the location where you should get fingerprinted.
5) Do not miss your interview. If you cannot make your interview for any reason, you must notify the office where your interview is scheduled by mail as soon as possible. In your letter, you should ask to have your interview rescheduled. Rescheduling an interview may add several months to the naturalization process.
If an emergency arises and you absolutely cannot make your appointment, call the National Customer Service Center at 1-800-375-5283 to request rescheduling. The NCSC will record the information, and pass it on to your local office.
If you do not notify the USCIS, they will "administratively close" your case. If you do not contact the USCIS to schedule a new interview within 1 year after your case is closed, your application will be denied - full stop. The USCIS will NOT notify you if they close your case because you missed your interview.
6) If after your interview your application is denied, there will be an administrative review. If you believe that you have been wrongly denied naturalization, you may request a hearing with an immigration officer. Your denial letter will explain how to request a hearing and will include the form you need. The form for filing an appeal is the "Request for Hearing on a Decision in Naturalization Proceedings under Section 336 of the Act" (Form N-336).


The Oath of Allegiance
By taking the oath of allegiance you swear to:
support the Constitution and obey the laws of the U.S.;
renounce any foreign allegiance and/or foreign title; and
bear arms for the Armed Forces of the U.S. or perform services for the government of the U.S. when required.

In exceptional circumstances, where the applicant establishes that they are opposed to any type of service in armed forces based on religious grounds, the USCIS will permit these applicants to take a modified oath.

The oath of allegiance is:
"I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God."

In some cases, USCIS allows the oath to be taken without the clauses:
". . .that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by law. . ."


Sample US Citizenship Test Questions

1. What is the supreme law of the land?

A: The Constitution

2. What does the Constitution do?

A: sets up the government
A: defines the government

A: protects basic rights of Americans

3. The idea of self-government is in the first three words of the Constitution. What are these words?

A: We the People

4. What is an amendment?

A: a change (to the Constitution)
A: an addition (to the Constitution)

5. What do we call the first ten amendments to the Constitution?

A: The Bill of Rights

6. What is one right or freedom from the First Amendment?*

A: speech
A: religion
A: assembly
A: press
A: petition the government

7. How many amendments does the Constitution have?

A: twenty-seven (27)

8. What did the Declaration of Independence do?

A: announced our independence (from Great Britain)
A: declared our independence (from Great Britain)
A: said that the United States is free (from Great Britain)

9. What are two rights in the Declaration of Independence?

A: life
A: liberty
A: pursuit of happiness

10. What is freedom of religion?

A: You can practice any religion, or not practice a religion.

11. What is the economic system in the United States?*

A: capitalist economy
A: market economy

12. What is the "rule of law"?

A: Everyone must follow the law.
A: Leaders must obey the law.
A: Government must obey the law.
A: No one is above the law.

B. System of Government

13. Name one branch or part of the government.*

A: Congress
A: legislative
A: President
A: executive
A: the courts
A: judicial

14. What stops one branch of government from becoming too powerful?

A: checks and balances
A: separation of powers

15. Who is in charge of the executive branch?

A: the President

16. Who makes federal laws?

A: Congress
A: Senate and House (of Representatives)
A: (U.S. or national) legislature

17. What are the two parts of the U.S. Congress?*

A: the Senate and House (of Representatives)

18. How many U.S. Senators are there?

A: one hundred (100)

19. We elect a U.S. Senator for how many years?

A: six (6)

20. Who is one of your state's U.S. Senators?*

A: Answers will vary. [For District of Columbia residents and residents of U.S. territories, the answer is that D.C. (or the territory where the applicant lives) has no U.S. Senators.]

* If you are 65 years old or older and have been a legal permanent resident of the United States for 20 or more years, you may study just the questions that have been marked with an asterisk.

21. The House of Representatives has how many voting members?

A: four hundred thirty-five (435)

22. We elect a U.S. Representative for how many years?

A: two (2)

23. Name your U.S. Representative.

A: Answers will vary. [Residents of territories with nonvoting Delegates or resident Commissioners may provide the name of that Delegate or Commissioner. Also acceptable is any statement that the territory has no (voting) Representatives in Congress.]

24. Who does a U.S. Senator represent?

A: all people of the state

25. Why do some states have more Representatives than other states?

A: (because of) the state's population
A: (because) they have more people
A: (because) some states have more people

26. We elect a President for how many years?

A: four (4)

27. In what month do we vote for President?*

A: November

28. What is the name of the President of the United States now?*

A: Barack H. Obama
A: Barack Obama
A: Obama

29. What is the name of the Vice President of the United States now?

A: Joseph R. Biden, Jr.
A: Joe Biden
A: Biden

30. If the President can no longer serve, who becomes President?

A: the Vice President

31. If both the President and the Vice President can no longer serve, who becomes President?

A: the Speaker of the House

32. Who is the Commander in Chief of the military?

A: the President

33. Who signs bills to become laws?

A: the President

34. Who vetoes bills?

A: the President

35. What does the President's Cabinet do?

A: advises the President

36. What are two Cabinet-level positions?

A: Secretary of Agriculture
A: Secretary of Commerce
A: Secretary of Defense
A: Secretary of Education
A: Secretary of Energy
A: Secretary of Health and Human Services
A: Secretary of Homeland Security
A: Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
A: Secretary of Interior
A: Secretary of State
A: Secretary of Transportation
A: Secretary of Treasury
A: Secretary of Veterans' Affairs
A: Secretary of Labor
A: Attorney General

37. does the judicial branch do?

A: reviews laws
A: explains laws
A: resolves disputes (disagreements)
A: decides if a law goes against the Constitution

38. What is the highest court in the United States?

A: the Supreme Court

39. How many justices are on the Supreme Court?

A: nine (9)

40. Who is the Chief Justice of the United States?

A: John Roberts (John G. Roberts, Jr.)

* If you are 65 years old or older and have been a legal permanent resident of the United States for 20 or more years, you may study just the questions that have been marked with an asterisk.

41. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the federal government. What isone power of the federal government?

A: to print money
A: to declare war
A: to create an army
A: to make treaties

42. Under our Constitution, some powers belong to the states. What is one power of the states?

A: provide schooling and education
A: provide protection (police)
A: provide safety (fire departments)
A: give a driver's license
A: approve zoning and land use

43. Who is the Governor of your state?

A: Answers will vary. [Residents of the District of Columbia and U.S. territories without a Governor should say "we don't have a Governor."]

44. What is the capital of your state?*

A: Answers will vary. [District of Columbia residents should answer that D.C. is not a state and does not have a capital. Residents of U.S. territories should name the capital of the territory.]

45. What are the two major political parties in the United States?*

A: Democratic and Republican

46. What is the political party of the President now?

A: Democratic (Party)

47. What is the name of the Speaker of the House of Representatives now?

A: (Nancy) Pelosi

C: Rights and Responsibilities

48. There are four amendments to the Constitution about who can vote. Describe one of them.

A: Citizens eighteen (18) and older (can vote).
A: You don't have to pay (a poll tax) to vote.
A: Any citizen can vote. (Women and men can vote.)
A: A male citizen of any race (can vote).

49. What is one responsibility that is only for United States citizens?*

A: serve on a jury
A: vote

50. What are two rights only for United States citizens?

A: apply for a federal job
A: vote
A: run for office
A: carry a U.S. passport

51. What are two rights of everyone living in the United States?

A: freedom of expression
A: freedom of speech
A: freedom of assembly
A: freedom to petition the government
A: freedom of worship
A: the right to bear arms

52. What do we show loyalty to when we say the Pledge of Allegiance?

A: the United States
A: the flag

53. What is one promise you make when you become a United States citizen?

A: give up loyalty to other countries
A: defend the Constitution and laws of the United States
A: obey the laws of the United States
A: serve in the U.S. military (if needed)
A: serve (do important work for) the nation (if needed)
A: be loyal to the United States

54. How old do citizens have to be to vote for President?*

A: eighteen (18) and older

55. What are two ways that Americans can participate in their democracy?

A: vote
A: join a political party
A: help with a campaign
A: join a civic group
A: join a community group
A: give an elected official your opinion on an issue
A: call Senators and Representatives
A: publicly support or oppose an issue or policy
A: run for office
A: write to a newspaper

56. When is the last day you can send in federal income tax forms?*

A: April 15

57. When must all men register for the Selective Service?

A: at age eighteen (18)
A: between eighteen (18) and twenty-six (26)

AMERICAN HISTORY

A: Colonial Period and Independence

58. What is one reason colonists came to America?

A: freedom
A: political liberty
A: religious freedom
A: economic opportunity
A: practice their religion
A: escape persecution

59. Who lived in America before the Europeans arrived?

A: Native Americans
A: American Indians

60. What group of people was taken to America and sold as slaves?

A: Africans
A: people from Africa

* If you are 65 years old or older and have been a legal permanent resident of the United States for 20 or more years, you may study just the questions that have been marked with an asterisk.

61. Why did the colonists fight the British?

A: because of high taxes (taxation without representation)
A: because the British army stayed in their houses (boarding, quartering)
A: because they didn't have self-government

62. Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

A: (Thomas) Jefferson

63. When was the Declaration of Independence adopted?

A: July 4, 1776

64. There were 13 original states. Name three.

A: New Hampshire
A: Massachusetts
A: Rhode Island
A: Connecticut
A: New York
A: New Jersey
A: Pennsylvania
A: Delaware
A: Maryland
A: Virginia
A: North Carolina
A: South Carolina
A: Georgia

65. What happened at the Constitutional Convention?

A: The Constitution was written.
A: The Founding Fathers wrote the Constitution.

66. When was the Constitution written?

A: 1787

67. The Federalist Papers supported the passage of the U.S. Constitution. Name one of the writers.

A: (James) Madison
A: (Alexander) Hamilton
A: (John) Jay
A: Publius

68. What is one thing Benjamin Franklin is famous for?

A: U.S. diplomat
A: oldest member of the Constitutional Convention
A: first Postmaster General of the United States
A: writer of "Poor Richard's Almanac"
A: started the first free libraries

69. Who is the "Father of Our Country"?

A: (George) Washington

70. Who was the first President?*

A: (George) Washington

B: 1800s

71. What territory did the United States buy from France in 1803?

A: the Louisiana Territory
A: Louisiana

72. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1800s.

A: War of 1812
A: Mexican-American War
A: Civil War
A: Spanish-American War

73. Name the U.S. war between the North and the South.

A: the Civil War
A: the War between the States

74. Name one problem that led to the Civil War.

A: slavery
A: economic reasons
A: states' rights

75. What was one important thing that Abraham Lincoln did?*

A: freed the slaves (Emancipation Proclamation)
A: saved (or preserved) the Union
A: led the United States during the Civil War

76. What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?

A: freed the slaves
A: freed slaves in the Confederacy
A: freed slaves in the Confederate states
A: freed slaves in most Southern states

77. What did Susan B. Anthony do?

A: fought for women's rights
A: fought for civil rights

C: Recent American History and Other Important Historical Information

78. Name one war fought by the United States in the 1900s.*

A: World War I
A: World War II
A: Korean War
A: Vietnam War
A: (Persian) Gulf War

79. Who was President during World War I?

A: (Woodrow) Wilson

80. Who was President during the Great Depression and World War II?

A: (Franklin) Roosevelt

* If you are 65 years old or older and have been a legal permanent resident of the United States for 20 or more years, you may study just the questions that have been marked with an asterisk.

81. Who did the United States fight in World War II?

A: Japan, Germany and Italy

82. Before he was President, Eisenhower was a general. What war was he in?

A: World War II

83. During the Cold War, what was the main concern of the United States?

A: Communism

84. What movement tried to end racial discrimination?

A: civil rights (movement)

85. What did Martin Luther King, Jr. do?*

A: fought for civil rights
A: worked for equality for all Americans

86. What major event happened on September 11, 2001 in the United States?

A: Terrorists attacked the United States.

87. Name one American Indian tribe in the United States.

[Adjudicators will be supplied with a complete list.]

A: Cherokee
A: Navajo
A: Sioux
A: Chippewa
A: Choctaw
A: Pueblo
A: Apache
A: Iroquois
A: Creek
A: Blackfeet
A: Seminole
A: Cheyenne
A: Arawak
A: Shawnee
A: Mohegan
A: Huron
A: Oneida
A: Lakota
A: Crow
A: Teton
A: Hopi
A: Inuit

INTEGRATED CIVICS

A: Geography

88. Name one of the two longest rivers in the United States.

A: Missouri (River)
A: Mississippi (River)

89. What ocean is on the West Coast of the United States?

A: Pacific (Ocean)

90. What ocean is on the East Coast of the United States?

A: Atlantic (Ocean)

91. Name one U.S. territory.

A: Puerto Rico
A: U.S. Virgin Islands
A: American Samoa
A: Northern Mariana Islands
A: Guam

92. Name one state that borders Canada.

A: Maine
A: New Hampshire
A: Vermont
A: New York
A: Pennsylvania
A: Ohio
A: Michigan
A: Minnesota
A: North Dakota
A: Montana
A: Idaho
A: Washington
A: Alaska

93. Name one state that borders Mexico.

A: California
A: Arizona
A: New Mexico
A: Texas

94. What is the capital of the United States?*

A: Washington, D.C.

95. Where is the Statue of Liberty?*

A: New York (Harbor)
A: Liberty Island
[Also acceptable are New Jersey, near New York City, and on the Hudson (River).]

B. Symbols

96. Why does the flag have 13 stripes?

A: because there were 13 original colonies
A: because the stripes represent the original colonies

97. Why does the flag have 50 stars?*

A: because there is one star for each state
A: because each star represents a state
A: because there are 50 states

98. What is the name of the national anthem?

A: The Star-Spangled Banner

C: Holidays

99. When do we celebrate Independence Day?*

A: July 4

100. Name two national U.S. holidays.

A: New Year's Day
A: Martin Luther King, Jr., Day
A: Presidents' Day
A: Memorial Day
A: Independence Day
A: Labor Day
A: Columbus Day
A: Veterans Day
A: Thanksgiving
A: Christmas


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